Monday, May 25, 2020
Corinne Olinger Final Exam-India Summary recommendations- As your advisor setting up your first international business expansion, a summary report is in order. By choosing to expand in the East, I can tell you that IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ancient civilization has provided a large foundation of knowledge in a society that has created intellectual capital and has an advantage over some other countries by being familiar with the English language after their occupation by the British Empire for a hundred years. India is now synonymous with Information Technology (IT). Its software developers and IT products/services are second only to the United States. There are more than 250 multinationals that are invested in India thus far. The reasons for investing areÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If it is going to take 30 to 39 months to build, and we need more than 120 licenses from different agencies, I would advise that we begin as soon as possible. India (for the time being) appears to be a prime choice for a new hotel venture and I recommend that we expand into this new market and see if we canÃ¢â¬â¢t give the Ã¢â¬Å"TajÃ¢â¬ a run for its money. How soon can we hire the Director of Sales and Marketing? That should be our first call. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Diamond analysis- The previous, depressing view of India has changed over the last two decades. India has gone from having a population said to be an overwhelming burden to being viewed as a vast source of human capital of 1.2 billion. India has large reserves of coal and many resources they can now produce; however, they are heavily dependent on imports due to their lack of natural gas supply and oil. Because of their human resources and their use of the English language, India has everything they need for a knowledge-based economy. Conditions of demand- The more demands the customers in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy make, the greater the pressure will be facing India to constantly upgrade its competitiveness via innovation, not to mention the unrelenting pressure to improve its quality. More than 250 multinationals have been attracted to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 12th largest economy to set up researchShow MoreRelatedCompulsory Rotatory Internship Programme ( Crip ) And The Preferred Post Graduate Specialities Essay1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLong working hours and stressful working environment along with the immense pressure of impending PG entrance exam hinder the affectivity of the Compulsory Rotatory Internship Programme (CRIP). Our study is an attempt to find the views regarding Compulsory Rotatory Internship Programme (CRIP) and the preferred post graduate specialities among interns from NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Nagpur. METHOD A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted; the questionnaireRead MoreOnline Exam1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand answers given stored in the database * Different Types of Multiple Choice Questions can be asked. * Answers processed and marks awarded Instantly. * View Results immediately upon Submission. * Generation of General Mark Lists Summary (Total marks Obtained) as well as Detailed (Topic Wise marks Obtained) * Individual Answer Sheets Generation. * The computerized examination system has a facility to Add students details, View Student List as well as Edit student detailsRead MoreMother, I Have Scored Good Results At My School Final Exam810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMeera: Mother, I have scored good results in my school final exam. I want to study further. MeeraÃ¢â¬â¢s mother: What is the point of further studies for you? You should focus on housework and cooking so that you can be a good wife My friend, Meera, could not study further after school. Now her life is full of regret and disappointment. However, her family supported her brother in his studies and he has a successful life. This contrast between two life stories illustrates how society presents differentRead MoreMy Motivation For Taking The Msc Programme Of Your Choice1597 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestoughest exam in India for getting admission into engineering degree. After securing state rank 100 and all India rank 6727398 out of 1000000 I get admitted to NIT Arunachal Pradesh which is one of the premier university of India. During my counselling at NIT Arunachal Pradesh I directly opted for Electronics Communication engineering without giving it a second thought. That was the turning point of my life. o Why you are interested in TU Delft and what you expect to find here In India we donÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreAnalysis Of Anita Desai s Novel Of Intricate Family Relations Essay2541 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesFASTING, FEASTING Synopsis Anita Desai s novel of intricate family relations plays out in two countries, India and the United States. The core characters comprise a family living in a small town in India, where provincial customs and attitudes dictate the future of all children: girls are to be married off and boys are to become as educated as possible. The story focuses on the life of the unmarried and main character, Uma, a spinster, the family s older daughter, with Arun, the boy and baby ofRead MoreGrades4266 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagespoint in time. Teachers who use product criteria base grades exclusively on final examination scores, final products (reports or projects), overall assessments, and other culminating demonstrations of learning. 2. Process criteria are emphasized by educators who believe product criteria do not provide a complete picture of student learning. From this perspective, grading and reporting should reflect not just the final results but also how students got there. Teachers who consider effort or workRead MoreSigmund Freud Essay1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgoes on with his education at the Sperl Gymnasium, which was a secondary school that prepared students for college, from 1866 to 1873 (Jones). Freud is accepted to enter the University of Vienna when he was seventeen years old, for passing the final exams with superior scores in Greek and Latin, mathematics, history, and the natural sciences (Jones). FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s family noticed that Sigmund was very special in his thus encouraged him by letting him stay in a room alone when they were eight people sharingRead MoreFaculty of Law and Management: International Marketing10010 Words Ã |Ã 41 Pages Contents 1.0 Subject information at a glance 3 2.0 Subject description 4 3.0 Learning and assessment 4 3.1 Learning objectives 4 3.2 Assessing the learning objectives 4 3.3 Assessment tasks 5 3.3.1 Overview 5 3.3.2 Case Study 6 3.3.3 Final eamination 6 3.3.4 Group assignment 6 3.4 Assessment requirements and definitions 10 3.4.1 Passing the Subject 11 3.4.2 Penalties for late assignments 11 3.4.3 Assessment criteria for group assignment 11 3.4.4 Format and submission of the groupRead MoreThe Legalization Of Organs Of The United States4086 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesExecutive Summary There is a well-established industry for the buying and selling of organs to those who are in dire need of a transplant, both legally and illegally, in many different countries. The legalization of the sale of organs in the United States would have serious consequences and raises many ethical dilemmas- regardless of religious beliefs. There are several ideas presented in this paper that present the issues that have hindered the progression of the legalization of organs. CurrentlyRead MoreEli Lilly in India3134 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesEli Lilly in India: Rethinking the Joint Venture Strategy Case Study Analysis Ã¢â¬â Final Exam Submitted by Lloyd Stallings April 15, 2012 IMAN 615: Dr. Daniel E. Gilbert Eli Lilly in India: Rethinking the Joint Venture Strategy Executive Summary Eli Lilly and Company is a pharmaceutical company, founded in 1876, that integrates many departments and supply-chain management. Ã The company in itself discovers, develops, manufactures
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The Food Industry from the 20th to the 21st Century Throughout human history, there have always been people who step up to make a change in our world. When people encounter something they donÃ¢â¬â¢t like they want to change it. The author of The Jungle and the producers of Food, Inc. are no exception. During the early 20th century the meat packing industry was a filthy and cruel business. Cruel to both the people that worked in the factories and the animals that were killed there. The industry has changed a lot since then but the production of food has become a much more industrial and engineered process that has completely taken nature out of the equation. People like Upton Sinclair and the producers of Food, Inc. wanted to disclose the ugly truth behind our food so it could be changed for the wellness of the whole United States. Both The Jungle and Food, Inc. set out to reveal the food industry and they have changed what people know ever since. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle in 1906 with a clear purpose, to expose the American meatpacking industry and the lives of immigrants living in the U.S. He wanted people to know what was really going on behind the scenes and the grisly conditions the workers worked in. Sinclair interviewed various people to get the inside story of the industry and he even went undercover as a worker to personally observe the conditions of the factories. The documentary Food, Inc. was made with a similar purpose in mind. To expose the dark side of theShow MoreRelatedThe Power Of The Assembly Line1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestechniques ever invented. In the 20th century, assembly line was amongst one of the most remarkable technological advancements. Nearly all the products that we use nowadays, we would not have it in the amount we need and at the prices we have it without the assembly line. The assembly line has played a major role in modifying the world and it is the main force behind every industry on earth. The use of assembly line in industries such as automotive, arms, and food has played a key role in supplyingRead MoreProgressive Era Dbq792 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProgressive Era The progressive leaders led the reform process of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s industrial economy in the early years of the 20th century. Through the antirust acts, inspection acts, and regulations on trading, progressive reformers reshaped the way the economy ran. In a political cartoon by the Washington Post in 1907, President Roosevelt is on a dead raccoon with the words Ã¢â¬Å"bad trustÃ¢â¬ shaved into it. The political cartoon does over exaggerate the effectiveness of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s policies regardingRead MoreUpton Sinclair s The Jungle Essay1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFor centuries immigrants have left their homes and have journeyed to the United States in pursuit to live out the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ , an idea that the U.S. will provide people with a better life. However, this Ã¢â¬Å"better lifeÃ¢â¬ was not just given upon arrival, immigrants were not told the horrid experiences, and backbreaking hour, they would face in search for a better life. There is no better repr esentation of this than Upton SinclairÃ¢â¬â¢s The Jungle, this book is a very accurate representation of the lifeRead MoreFast Food Nation By Eric Schlosser1596 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesby consumerism and big business. Companies selling cheap food and cheap goods are scattered across the nation in every state and town. This is Eric SchlosserÃ¢â¬â¢s main topic in his novel Fast Food Nation. From telling the start of the first fast food restaurants in America, to explaining how the food is made, Schlosser s covers the whole history of the world wide food phenomenon. Eric Schlosser is an American journalist and Author of Fast Food Nation. He was born in Manhattan, New York, but grew upRead MoreTechnology And The Growth And Expansion Of The Population And Society Essay1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFrom the beginning of humanity, the growth and expansion of the population and society have led to the development of different technologies. These technologies, have helped with the evolution of civilizations and have equipped people with a variety of tools to address problems that, until then, had no solution with the means available at that time. Since man appeared on earth there is technology. Technology is considered as a set of knowledge and applied techniques, which are used by human beingsRead MoreDisease, Infection, And Poor Living Conditions : The Dirt Of The Meat Industry1506 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDirt of the Meat Industry Over the course of industrialization in food processing industries, sanitation has never been up to par. In recent years, sanitation has taken a nose dive and it is negatively impacting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Livestock, particularly cattle, chicken, and pigs, in the meatpacking industry are kept in unsanitary living conditions that are causing the animals to contract dangerous diseases that are contaminating the meat being processed for food. In 1972, the Food and Drug AdministrationRead MoreTechnology During The 20th Century1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJillian Garrett History 1493 Professor Hanshew 19 June 2015 Research Paper Technology in the early 20th century grew quickly and brought many changes to life both at home and in work. Automobiles, home appliances, and entertainment changed how Americans spent their time and money. During the early to mid-20th century America went through an economical depression, two wars, and recessions, this caused many Americans to go through stages of poverty, fear, and wealth. The advancement of technologyRead MoreCalifornia Agriculture : California Of The United States And Around The World1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesviews of animals and by creating a food chain that benefited the tribe. Many native tribes observed the environmental system that either made other species survive and extinct. The natives were considered to be curious about the environment they lived that prepared them want to learn, observe, and practice rituals. The natives were uninformed that religious ritual such as coordinating the sun and moon movement was practical rituals of much groundwork for collecting food and building supplies. Like manyRead MoreStalin and Mao960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof Student : Cheng Ho Wai, Gavin Class : 5A Class No.: 06 Title : Compare and contrast economic policies of Stalin (5 Years Plan) and Mao (First 5 Year Plan Three Red Banners) Study Outline : The first half of the 20th century saw the rise of some single-party states and the rise to power of some of the famous and controversial figures. Leaders of these states, such as Hitler, Mao and Stalin, not only influenced other countries around the world, but also changed theirRead MoreImperialism : The Age Of New Imperialism1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages take the supplies and goods to support the mother nation, and use the supplies and goods to benefit your own empire by conquering even more empires. Imperialism did not begin in the twentieth century, imperialism has been around as early as the sixteenth century. The Imperialism in early sixteenth century is referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of Old ImperialismÃ¢â¬ . The Imperialism that is going to be referred to in this paper is going to be known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Age of New ImperialismÃ¢â¬ . This new trend of Imperialism
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The political ideologies of BakuninÃ¢â¬â¢s Anarchism, LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s Bolshevism and HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s Neoliberalism all offer a critique of the state. Upon comparing and contrasting these ideologies a surprising similarity, as well as several differences reveal themselves. The lone similarity of the political philosophies of Bakunin, Lenin and Hayek is that the capitalist state is the protector and enforcer of property rights. Agreement between the three ends there as they all diverge on the issue of whether the state taking an active role in enforcing societyÃ¢â¬â¢s property relations is justifiable or oppressive. Furthermore, they all offer contrasting definitions of the state and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ functions. Another difference is what alterations should be made to the state for a better society and how changes can be enforced. Bakunin advocates for no state; Lenin advises eliminating the capitalist state and temporarily replacing it with a socialist state to usher in communism before h aving no state; Hayek promotes the idea that the state is a necessary evil that is always gradually evolving and attempting to better suit society. Hindsight into the shortcomings associated with BakuninÃ¢â¬â¢s and LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies, and the logic he applies in discussing the state as a necessary component of any functioning society make HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s Neoliberalism the most practical political ideology. Bakunin, Lenin and Hayek all agree that the state offers a protective shield over capitalism to allow the economy to perpetuate itself.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Bioterrorism Essay, Research Paper You wake up early for work and snog your household adieu. On your day-to-day theodolite you see a adult male bead a glass phial in the metro, but you think nil of it. Moments subsequently you become a statistic. A statistic of Bioterrorism. The menace of Bioterrorism, long ignored and denied, has heightened over the past old ages and demands to be publically addressed. There are three possible solutions to this menace that are within appreciations. The first of which would be a state broad inoculation against all agents that could be used against the American populace. Second, we could educate people to more expeditiously spot the symptoms of such an act, or to protect themselves from an act that has already taken topographic point. The last solution would be to forestall the act from happening, observe it every bit shortly as it occurs, and destruct the destructive pathogen used. Even with all of these solutions, an act of Bioterrorism is an major menace to the united provinces that could happen undetected and must be dealt with instantly in order to salvage lives. Biological warfare has been used from the corpses poisoning H2O supplies, to modern engineering leting weaponries, and advanced deployment of biological arms. Both states, and heretical groups exist that have some of the most unsafe, and lifelessly pathogens, along with the ability to deploy them. Bioterrorism presents a menace to all people of the universe, and will ever stay a menace for three chief grounds. One, it is really easy for anyone to obtain samples of harmful agents, such as splenic fever or little syphiliss. Two, An act of this terrorist act could happen at any clip, any topographic point, and there would be no reaction for yearss or hebdomads. And 3rd, many of the agents that can be used in such Acts of the Apostless have no interventions, allow alone remedies. If a group, or state had support and a moderate research lab they could bring forth, and deploy some of the universes deadliest pathogens undetected. For illustration, in 1995, the Nipponese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, released the nervus gas Sarnin in the Tokyo metro. The cult besides had other programs set up. In its arsenal constabulary found big measures of food media, Botulium civilization, splenic fever civilizations, and drone aircraft equipped with spray armored combat vehicles. Members of this group hold even traveled to Zaire in 1992 to obtain samples of the Ebola virus. Terrorist groups exist today that have a big measure of diseases, chemicals, and viruses to take from. Information on how to civilization and obtain such things is available on the Internet. Deadlier samples of such viruses, as little syphilis, and even Ebola, may be merely at the fingertips of major terrorist groups. After the cold war a Russian Bioweapons installation, Vector, became a high concern. Before the cold war, vector was a 4000 individual, 30 edifice installation with an ample Biosaftey degree 4 research lab. The research lab housed the little syphilis virus, every bit good as work on the deathly Ebola virus, Marbug, and the hemorrhagic febrility viruses. Any point of view you look at it from disgruntled individual, terrorist cult, and Nation, Obtaining samples of these civilizations isn? t whether you want it, it when you want it. If a terrorist group did go on to obtain these arms, which is likely, utilizing it is even easier. If a individual were to drop a light bulb full of Anthrax spores in the New York subway, it could kill 1000s, to 100s of 1000s of people. The agents splenic fever, pestilence, undulant fever, little syphilis, viral phrenitis, and viral hemorrhagic febrilities are of peculiar concern. They are comparatively easy and cheap to bring forth, do decease or disenabling disease, and can be aerosolized and distributed over big geographic countries. These agents can be released in little sums, without anyone cognizing for yearss or hebdomads, and can infect 100s of 1000s of people and do many deceases. The most sever menace of Bioterrorism Is the fact that for many of the agents used, there are no interventions developed, and no remedies. We are badly prepared to get by with a terrorist onslaught that uses biological arms. In antagonistic terrorist act attempts, the focal point prevarications largely with chemical, or explosive arms. A chemical release or a major detonation is a batch more manageable than a biological onslaught posed by Anthrax, or little syphilis. After an detonation or a chemical onslaught, the worst effects are over rapidly. The extent of the harm can be assessed, deceases and hurts tolled, and attempts to reconstruct and retrieve can acquire underway. With the usage of little syphilis or Anthrax, twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours, extra instances could be expected, and in new countries . Finding ways to efficaciously contend back against Bioterrorism is hard. The foremost feasible solution would be a state broad inoculation against the most likely agents to be used in Bioweapons. If such a run were to take topographic point so incidents affecting pathogens against which people were immune to would, evidently, have no consequence on the economic system. This would be the chief intent for our State to use a inoculation program. However, there are several drawbacks to this program. First of wholly, if our state were to arouse this scheme it would take a mass attempt to do all of the vaccinums, make up ones mind which 1s were deserving giving, and acquiring the stuffs, and specializers to do the vaccinums. Having several vaccinums for every US citizen would be about impossible, and cost revenue enhancement remunerators a big sum of money. Besides, cults, or Ns ations would invariably be bring forthing new, or mutated strains that we would hold to develop vaccinums to. we would be in a changeless game of catch-up. Relentlessly seeking to calculate out with what would come up following. Many physicians today haven? t even seen a instance of splenic fever or little syphilis, and even if they did, it is improbable they would be able to expeditiously diagnose the symptoms. This job needs to be fixed. Establishing a program to educate physicians, nurses, police officer, and firemen. If a scenario occurred affecting the eruption of little syphilis on US dirt, it? s about certain that the act would travel unnoticed until a characteristic roseola appeared on the victims 9 to 10 yearss subsequently. Most of the physicians present wouldn? T be able to name the symptoms, and it would be several more yearss until the diagnosing was confirmed. By that clip, the virus would hold been passed to countless other victims, it would be to late. The ability to adequately educate people to quickly respond to an act could be the difference between a 100 deceases, to 100s of 1000s of deceases. If exigency room physicians were taught the symptoms of such instances so it would be more likely to be caught before. If firemans, and police officer were taught to acknowledge an act at the scene, so it could be stopped even earlier, forestalling even more human loss. Anyway you expression at it, The early sensing of an act of Bioterrorism will salvage lives. The last solution would be to forestall, observe, and destroy . This is a combination of many thoughts I presented earlier. This combination would include inoculation, instruction, and response. Because military, physicians, constabulary, and firemen are all critical to a metropolis, they would be given vaccinums to the few most likely pathogens to be used. This act would set a safety cyberspace around the maps of any metropolis, without seting strenuous strain on the economic system. The 2nd portion, instruction, would affect all of the stairss I described before. This would assist us observe the happening of an outbreak rapidly in order to make the 3rd portion, destroy. This measure is really critical, and of import. After we have determined that there was an eruption, so we must move every bit rapidly as possible to quarantine, and destruct the harmful agent. In order to carry through this we necessitate a excess of vaccinums for civilian distribution. A web of research labs capable of the demand in an eruption, and a far better group of trained epidemiologists, clinicians, and research workers. This solution would allow us forestall an act from happening, Detect it rapidly, and them nullify the harmful agent as shortly as possible. In my sentiment, the best manner to contend Bioterrorism would be to prevent, detect, and destroy . Traveling into deepnesss on this subject, we can see that it provides us with two lines of defence, the prevent, and the destroy. However, the detect is critical portion of this program. Prevention has two significances behind it. It implies that we prevent an incident from happening all together. but it could besides intend that we would non be effected by the pathogen used against us. The chief thing to make is forestall a terrorist act from happening is to extremely modulate the usage of harmful agents. Restricting who, and how much could hold deathly diseases, where it goes, and what it? s used for. Merely allowing high category viruses such as Ebola into high degree security research labs. If this were to take topographic point, people of menace would hold a more hard clip obtaining these civilizations. The 2nd thing to make would be educating police officer to topographic point Acts of the Apostless at the scene of the offense. This would let us to restrict the eruption to a little country earlier, and have a much easier clip destructing it. Besides educating our physicians to acknowledge instances before would maintain the casualties down. Prevention of a Bioweapons act is the chief end, but if it fails we must hold a backup program. Once it has been determined that a biological arm has been used, restricting the country of the happening is critical, this prevents the virus from distributing. No 1 in the confined country should be allowed to go forth, and people come ining must be protected with proper equipment. In order to assist efficaciously make this we need to set up a local, regional, and national disease control system. The local system would be responsible to place the specific virus, and find the quarantine country. Once this has been done, the regional squad would come in and implement the quarantine country, and besides get down a criterion intervention for those patients. Once this has been done, the national squad would start to find a more specific intervention, and effort to develop a remedy. If no remedy can be found, so the country shall be destroyed by any agencies necessary to extinguish the harmful agent, and keep safety. If an eruption did occur, so we shall make whatever it takes to minimise human life, without the cost of many. Bioterrorism represents a clear and present danger to the united provinces. Out of All the solutions I gave, if nil is done, so it is non if an act will occur, but when it will happen. Bioterrorism has already happened, and will continue to until we do something about it. In order to make about it we must incite a program of state broad inoculation, instruction, or prevent detect destroy. If nil is done, so one twenty-four hours on your manner to work you could go a statistic, a statistic of Bioterrorism.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Abortion An Editorial Essay For The Illegalization Of Abortion Many have pondered upon the meaning of abortion. The argument being that every child born should be wanted, and others who believe that every child conceived should be born (Sass vii). This has been a controversial topic for years. Many people want to be able to decide the destiny of others. Everyone in the United States is covered under the United States constitution, and under the 14th Amendment women have been given the choice of abortion. In 1973, Harry A. Blackmun wrote the majority opinion that it's a women's right to have an abortion. Roe v. Wade legalized abortion. Even though these people have been given the right, the case is not closed. Pro-life activists carry a strong argument, and continue to push their beliefs. They feel so strongly about these beliefs that violence has broken out in some known instances. Pro-choice activists, on the other hand, also carry very strong points. They believe that the child inside them is their property and it's life doesn't be until birth. In 1973, the United States Supreme Court decided that as long as the baby lived in the womb, he or she would be the property of the mother. Because of this decision almost every third baby conceived in America is killed by abortion, over one and a half million babies a year (Willke vii). Many countries have followed our decision on the abortion issue and some of these include Canada, England, and France. Other countries still believe abortion should be illegal, they include Germany, Ireland, and New Zealand. Although many believe that abortion is a women's choice, abortion should be banned because its immoral and life begins at conception. Abortion is the choice of a women whether or not she want's to receive one. Under the 14th Amendment's personal liberty women are given the right to receive an abortion. The 14th Amendment's concept of personal liberty and restrictions on state action is enough to allow a women's decision whether or not to terminate her pregnancy. The right to choose to have an abortion is so personal and essential to women's lives that without this right women cannot exercise other fundamental rights and liberties guaranteed by the Constitution (Paltrow 72). The state can't interfere in the private lives of a citizen. Without the right to choose an abortion the 14th Amendment's guarantee of liberty has little meaning for women. With the right to choose abortion, women are able to enjoy, like men, the rights to fully use the powers of their minds and bodies (Paltrow 73). A man can withdraw from a relationship as soon as he finds out about a pregnancy. There is no question of his involve t after that, he has made his choice. It is only fair to say that women should be given the same choice. If one doesn't want to hold the responsibilities of a child than she should be able to have the choice of abortion in her options. Because contraceptives fail, and because they are not always available or possible to use, abortion is necessary if people are to be able to determine whether and when to bear or beget a child(Paltrow 72). Couples choose the alternative of abortion so they can start or expand their families when they feel most ready and able to care for them. Women choose to have an abortion because pregnancy and childbirth can prevent them from keeping their jobs, from feeding their families, and from serving others in ways they consider necessary and appropriate. Pregnancy and child birth may determine whether a women ever gets to start or complete her education, which will significantly influence her ability to support herself and her family. The availabilit y of abortion makes it possible for people not only to choose the number of children they want, but also to create the kind of family life they have always wanted for themselves, to meet their responsibilities. If a women cannot choose to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, she is denied the right to the possession and control of her own body. One of the most sacred rights of common law is to choose and if a women can't do this than their most important possession is taken away. Abortion isn't only a women's right, it's a women's choice. However, allowing abortion to be legal is immoral. A pre- born child is given the status of a product of pregnancy and never seen as the miracle only a women can create. Compassion for the small one is drowned out under a demand for rights, but what about the rights for
Monday, March 9, 2020
JOB DESCRIPTION Essay JOB DESCRIPTION Essay Local residents with small businesses near CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s World would benefit from the money that is being brought in by visitors.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH This involves being concerned with finding Ã¢â¬ËsoftÃ¢â¬â¢ information, i.e. Customer attitudes, beliefs and opinions. Its purpose is to understand customer behaviour by identifying possible reasons or causes. The techniques Cadburys use to gather qualitative data are those more likely to encourage more detailed responses from those being interviewed as well as focus groups. Cadburys will use qualitative data in circumstances when customerÃ¢â¬â¢s answers cannot be recorded into statistics, meaning interviews and focus groups are the best way to collect this sort of data. SITUATION ANALYSIS Cadbury is the market leader in the Indian market. Cadbury is the fourth largest supplier of chocolate and other sugar confectionaries in the market. In India it has the largest share of the market with more than 70 percent of the market share. The following is the SWOT analysis for the company: Strengths The company has an already large established business in the Indian market. Since 1824, the company has established itself as a world leader in the confectionary market. It has operated in India since 1948. In India it has about 70% of the confectionary market. In line with its vision, the company has been striving to be the world leader in the confectionary industry. Through innovation and strategic marketing, the company has acquired about 10% of the world confectionary market. The company has good market reputation. With strong brands in the market, the company is well positioned in the market. It is totally focused on chocolate, candy, chewing gum, unique understanding of consumer in these segments. In the Indian market Cadburys has strived to build a good market reputation. This has worked positively for its products. It is on this good reputation that the market can embark on introducing the new brand in the market. Cadbury India was ranked the 5th most respected Indian company by Business world magazine in 2007. The target market is also quite large. With the female population marketing more than 56 percent of the Indian population, there is a wide target market for the product. The Indian chocolate market has been recording growth in the recent past and there are future prospects of growth. Therefore the target market is slowly expanding. Cadbury is a company, which is reputed internationally as the topmost chocolate provider in the world Cadbury is the largest global confectionery supplier, with 9.9% of global market share. The brand is well known to people and they can easily identify it from others, by its distinctive branding, this separates it from any other competitor as it stands out within the market. The iconic purple branding of CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s is on many of the products, this will ensure all customers know that each of their products is CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s. If users have a positive perception of existing products, itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely that they will assume all products have similar quality; this will benefit Cadburys as they are known to have high quality products. High financial strength (Sales turnover 1997, Ã £7971.4 million and 9.4%) The products that Cadbury sell are convenient to customers as it can be thought as a quick and easy snack, which does not need cooking or heating. This attracts customers as it can be an easy option and a good alternative to a meal. Weakness The target population is quiet large and there are fears the demand for the product may outdo the capacity of the company to satisfy the demands of the market. It is still not clearly established the rate of growth of the product in the market but there are expectation that the product will record a high growth rate. This means that the company will need to increase its production capacity in order to match the rate of growth of the market The company has not been able to establish a distribution network
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Reflection Paper - Essay Example Art is not something which stays stable but it evolves through time by being influence by everything. Technology is changing drastically over the years due to which art has successfully evolved into a whole new different vision. Now paintings are not just considered to be some creative and modernized images but are also created by the painters by taking the help of modern equipment and material. Though art has been there from the beginning as evidenced by the vestiges of the past but still the technology has made the use of new equipment possible and has provided it a whole new medium. The option of digital art allows people to work with images and colors and create masterpieces, without even having professional training. Other technological changes that have occurred in art during the last few decades include invention of colors spectrum, photography, computer manipulated photography, digital media, etc. (Souppouris, 2014). Graphic designing has become easier for the artists and can be carried out through Photoshop and illustrators, which has opened up a whole new realm for them for concentrating i.e. Web Design. It has also developed a great opportunity for the amateur designers as they do not have to learn much about manual typography and screen printing. Digital art such as ArtRage, Painter and Photoshop allows people to paint without even using an actual brush. In a way this technology improves the painting skills of the individual, as it is faster than working with oil, the painting can be easily discarded and this is much easier than using canvas (Pitt, 2012). American culture has always been the supporter of art even during the depression decade; the Washington State was seen as the home of the national art history, hosting some of the most creative and innovative musical, theatre and performing art (Zimmermann, 2013). For example it was during the darkest days of the great depression when
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
MAT201 - Basic Statistics - Speech or Presentation Example I purposely chose the number of phone calls received and not phone calls made in order to avoid any possible bias, which might arise out of conscious and purposeful dialing of the phone. The observation collected was based on randomly taken data for 10 chosen days and the nature of this dataset is time series. The data was collected such that a single dayÃ¢â¬â¢s call would not stimulate any received call for the following days. This was consciously done in order to avoid bias. Median value corresponds to observation=(n+1)/2, again if the number of observation is odd then we choose the middle value after arranging the observations in increasing order. Whereas if we have even number of observations as we have here, we take the mean of the two middle observations and it yields the median. The mean value of 13.7 calls (14 approx) is much more than what I expected. The busy schedule usually cuts down the number of phone calls to 10 per day. The average should have been somewhere around 10 or 11. The standard deviation is usually used to find the spread of the distribution of the available data set; here the number of phone calls in 10 days. It can also be said that it is a measure of variability. Square root of variance gives standard deviation. To find out whether the given data set follows normal distribution or not we plot the frequency as we may see that we do not get a symmetrical curve, so our inference is that the data do not follow Normal distribution. As it can be observed that the obtained frequency curve is not symmetrical, and hence we infer that the distribution is not Normal because the Normal distribution is a continuous distribution whereas the number of phone calls in 10 days is off course a discrete variable. Hence the most likely distribution that might be used is the Poisson distribution. Now we continue collecting the data on the number of phone calls for five more days. Our basic question in this context would be whether this changes the
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Historical Roots Behind Refrigeration History Essay The refrigeration technology is an important technology in that it slows down the growth of bacteria. In doing this, it lowers the risks of diseases. This is because bacteria exist all around us including in the foods that we eat. When the bacteria are supplied with enough nutrients and favorable climatic conditions, they grow rapidly and hence can cause illnesses. Refrigeration technology comes in hardy to stop the rapid multiplication of the bacteria and this is a benefit to the society in that its chances of falling ill from Bacteria illnesses are reduced (Bauer, 1998) Historical roots behind refrigeration. The very first artificial refrigeration known was the demonstration presented at the University of Glasgow by William Cullen in 1748. This discovery however was not use for any practical purpose. The first refrigerator was designed by Oliver Evans, an American inventor in 1748. But the first practical refrigerator was built in 1834 by Jacob Perkins. This refrigerator used vapor in a vapor compression cycle. John Gorrie an American physician built a refrigerator in 1844 based on Evans design. This refrigerator was built with the aim of making ice to cool the air for the yellow fever patients that he was treating. Carl Von Linden, a German engineer patented, in 1976 the process of liquefying gas but not the refrigerator (Burstall, 65). Gas liquefaction is the basic part of refrigeration technology. The first refrigerators were made of wood cabinet and a compressor that was cooled with water. Steel and porcelain cabinets emerged in 1920s to replace the wooden refrigerators which were le ss effective. The evolutions of the refrigerators continue to improve in the 50s and 60s and they became better to suit the needs of the customers. Automatic ice makers and automatic defrost were added in the refrigerator with the aim of making them user friendly and reduce the maintenance. The modern day refrigeration technology is aimed at making the refrigerators more environments friendly (About.Com) The refrigeration process has not stopped evolving. The early refrigerators of 1800 used toxic gas like ammonia, methyl chloride and sulfur dioxide as the refrigerant. These were used up to 1929. In the 1920s, there are many fatal accidents which occurred. This was caused by the leaking of methyl chloride from the refrigerators. It was after this that 3 American corporations embarked on intensive research to come up with a less dangerous method of refrigeration. Their efforts led to the use of Freon which became a standard for all refrigerators. Freon was changed in 1996 and it was replaced with HFC 134a. This was done so as to comply with The Regulatory Clean Air Act. The replacement was done because HFC 134a was less injurious to the environment and the Ozone as compared to Freon. The effectiveness of HFC 134a was just the same as Freon and the users of refrigerators did not notice any difference. The table below shows the milestones achieved in the refrigeration technology. Milestones: BC 1000 The Chinese cut and stored ice 500Ã Ã Egyptians and Indians made ice on cold nights by setting water out in earthenware pots AD 1700 In England, servants collected ice in the winter and put it into icehouses for use in the summer 1720 Dr. William Cullen, a Scotsman, studied the evaporation of liquids in a vacuum 1805 Oliver Evans of Pennsylvania, compressed ether machine, the machine is never built 1820 Michael Faraday, a Londoner, liquefied ammonia to cause cooling 1834 Jacob Perkins, ether vapor compression cycle, Ice Making Machine 1844 James Harrison of Australia invents compressed ether machine 1850 Edmond Carre of France, invents an absorption process machine 1852 William Thomson James Prescott cooling increases in proportion to the pressure difference 1855 Dr. John Gorrie builds compression refrigeration system based on Faradays experiments. 1856 James Harrison commissioned by a brewery to build a machine that cooled beer. 1859 Ferdinand Carre of France, developed the first ammonia/water refrigeration machine 1871 Carl von Linde of Germany published an essay on improved refrigeration techniques 1873 Carl von Linde first practical and portable compressor refrigeration machine was built in Munich 1874 Raoul Pictet of Switzerland, a compressor system using sulfur dioxide instead of ammonia 1876 Carl von Linde, early models he used methyl ether, but changed to an ammonia cycle 1878 von Linde starts Lindes Eismaschinen AG, (Society for Lindes Ice Machines), now Linde AG 1881 Edmund J. Copeland and Arnold H. Gross start Leonard Refrigerator Company 1894 Linde developed a new method (Linde technique) for the liquefaction of large quantities of air. 1894 Linde AG installs refrigerator at the Guinness brewery in Dublin, Ireland 1895 Carl von Linde produced large amounts of liquid air using the Thomson-Joule effect 1901 Patent # 665,814 issued January 10, for a Refridgeator (Ice Box) invented by Henry Trost. 1911 General Electric company unveiled a refrigerator invented by a French monk. Abbe Audiffren 1913 Fred W. Wolf Jr.of the Domelre Company (DOMestic Electric Refrigerator) 1914 Leonard Refrigerator Company renamed Electro-Automatic Refrigerating Company 1915 Alfred Mellowes starts Guardian Frigerato to build first self-container refrigerator for home use 1916 Servel models compressors were generally driven by motors located in the basement 1916 Henry Joy of Packard Motor Car Co. purchased the Fred W. Wolf refrigerator rights 1918 Guardian Frigerato purchased by General Motors and renamed Frigidaire 1918 Electro-Automatic Refrigerating Company renamed Kelvinator 1920 there were some 200 different refrigerator models on the market. 1922 Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters introduce absorption process refrigerator 1923 Kelvinator held 80 percent of the market for electric refrigerators 1923 AB Arctic.begins production of refrigerators based on Platen-Munters invention 1925 Electrolux purchases AB Arctic and launches the D-fridge on the world market 1925 Steel and porcelain cabinets began appearing in the mid-20s 1927 first refrigerator to see widespread use was the General Electric Monitor-Top refrigerator. 1930 first built-in refrigerator is launched by Electrolux 1931 Dupont produced commercial quantities of R-12, trademarked as Freon 1931 the first air-cooled refrigerator introduced by Electrolux 1932 Gibson, then owned by Frank Gibson, manufactured its own line of refrigerators. 1934 an innovation, the Shelvador refrigerator, was introduced by the Crosley Radio Corporation 1936 Albert Henne synthesizes refrigerant R-134a 1937 more than 2 million Americans owned refrigerators. 1939 refrigerator with one section for frozen food and a second for chilled food, introduced by G. E. 1946 Mass production of modern refrigerators didnt get started until after World War II. 1947 GE two-door refrigerator-freezer combination 1955 80% of American homes now have refrigerators 2005 A domestic refrigerator is present in 99.5% of American homes Ã Table 1. Source: The Great Idea Finder Is refrigeration an old or a new technology. Refrigeration is an old technology that started a long time ago. Refrigeration concept can be said to originate from the prehistoric times. During this period, man found that the meat he had hunted lasted longer when stored in the cool areas of the cave or when packed in snow. The early man found that when he stored his game in cold temperatures, it lasted for long. He therefore hunted excess game which he kept in cold temperatures and he would eat this meat when the food was in short supply. As the early man progressed, he started using ice which he harvested in winter to use in summer. Ice was also harvested from lakes and rivers to be used for the purpose of refrigeration. Adding chemicals like sodium and potassium nitrate to water so as to lower its temperatures was the next stage in the history of refrigeration. It is recorded that this method was used to cool wine in 1550. The use of mechanical refrigeration started in the last quarter of the 19th century. This evolution was a long slow process (Trevor, 1978) Has refrigeration led to any type of social change? The refrigeration technology can be said to have a great impact to women in particular. This is because women are viewed as the domestic worker (Cowan, 137-138). Though this mentality has changed in the modern world, there is still the thought that the domestic world belongs to women. The refrigerators can be seen to symbolize the freedom of house wives. They have saved women from preserving foods in the old fashioned ways of salting, smoking or dehydrating. The air conditioning has contributed immensely to the development of the hot and humid areas both socially and economically. This has been achieved through creation of habitable environments with desired temperatures and humidity levels in office buildings and private homes (Barbara, 2003) Benefits of refrigeration to the society Refrigeration has changed the lifestyles of the society in various ways. One can buy food for a whole week without fear of it getting spoiled after refrigeration. Cooked food can also be stored for long without getting spoilt. Salting of food as a method of preservation is long forgotten. The food preserved using this method did not even last for a long time. One can also get a cold drink during the hottest summer and this seemed like a dream before refrigeration wad invented. Fruits, vegetables and even flowers can be kept fresh for a long period of time with refrigeration. The modern life is in the fast lane. This has called for most people to be working for long hours or working two jobs. In homes both partners may be busy for up to a whole week and hence no time for everyday cooking. With refrigeration, they can cook as much food as possible when they are free and storing it in refrigerators and they can eat it throughout the week. This saves them much time which could have been wasted ion cooking after work. With refrigeration, the temperature of the food is lowered and thus the food can be kept for long to be used later without getting spoiled (Shephard, 29) Refrigeration is also widely used for the purposes of air conditioning in homes, public buildings and restaurants. It is also used for refrigeration of foodstuffs in restaurants and also in large storage warehouses. Refrigerators have become very common in the United States. Most American homes started using refrigerators a long time ago. More than 80 % of the rural American and more than 90% of urban American homes used owned a refrigerator by the year 1950 (Historychannel.com) Refrigeration is also used commercially and in manufacturing industries. It is used to liquefy gases including oxygen, nitrogen, propane, and methane. It is used to compress and condense water vapor in compressed air purification. This process is aimed at reducing the moisture content of compressed air. In industries like petrochemical, refineries and chemical plants, refrigeration is important as it is used for the maintenance of certain chemical processes and reactions at low temperatures. An example is in the production of high octane gasoline component where the alkylations of butanes and butane is done at low temperatures (Noor, 2009) Refrigeration is therefore a vital technology in many sectors of the economy like the dairy industry, the meat industry, fish and pork industry and also in the fruits and vegetables sector. In the non food sectors, refrigeration is used in school laboratories to store chemicals, samples and cultures. It is also the technology that is used to preserver corpses in morgues. Detrimental effects of refrigeration to the society. The refrigerant used in refrigerators has a negative effect on the environment. Though the use of CFC has been banned, some manufactures may sell the old stocks of refrigerators which use CFC. These are detrimental to the ozone layer. The HFCs being used on modern refrigerators are strong green house gas emitters. Though they do not harm the ozone, they destroy the environment that we live-in. Refrigeration contributes to the global warming. Though HFCs were seen as the solution to refrigeration, it has a very high potential of global warming. This contribution is due to direct emissions of the refrigerant gases. Most of these emissions are due to leakage of the refrigerant into the environment either due to poor maintenance and containment. Freon was seen as been safer to the consumer though it had negative impacts on the environment. Clean Air Act was passed in 1990 and it restricted use of CFCs. Many industries had no other choice than to be forced to phase out CFCs in their produ cts (Gopalnarayanan, 19) Refrigeration as a symbol of growth. Refrigeration has allowed many families and industries to keep food fresh for long periods of time. It is a symbol of growth in that most families are small and they occupy a small piece of land and hence there is no space for keeping livestock and growing different varieties of fruits and vegetables. Also most modern families live in towns and cities where there are no gardens for growing fruits and vegetables or keeping animals. This does not therefore mean that because these families are limited by these factors, they cannot enjoy a varied and balanced diet. Supermarkets have stocked all types of me4at, eggs, vegetables and eggs in their refrigerated shelves. These customers come and buy the same and stock it in their refrigerators. The fish, poultry, dairy products and vegetables can be kept in the same space of the refrigerator within the kitchen. Refrigeration is an important symbol of growth and societal progress in that the society can enjoy a variety of salads, fruits and vegetables all year long without having and tilling their own garden. The society can also enjoy dairy products without having their own dairy animals, meat products without owning beef cattle, egg products without rearing their own poultry and all kinds of fish without having a fish pond all year round. Also other types of foods from far off countries are madder available to the society. These food products are shipped or delivered by air under refrigeration. Refrigeration allows purchase of goods in large scale and in bulk. With regard to economies of scale, this saves on money. It has become possible to enjoy ice cream which may have been produced from abroad unlike in the past where ice cream was eaten on the spot at the place of manufacture. Through refrigeration world trade has been opened up and refrigerated goods from one country can be easily market in another without the fear of spoilage. Refrigeration technology has acted as a source of employment to many people. The direct employees include the refrigeration experts, technicians; mechanics and installers. These are mainly people employed by air conditioning, plumbing and heating contractors and companies. Indirect employment involve people in other sectors e.g. in shops that sell the refrigeration equipments, dairy farmers, fishermen and fruits and vegetable farmers. How government institutions helped shape refrigeration. Government as a regulator- the government through the Environmental Protection Agency has set standards for monitoring and regulating refrigerant leaks. There are other regulations and strict standards that have been set by the government regarding green house emissions from the refrigerants. The government has identified CFCs, HCFCs, and PFCs as ozone depleting gases (ODS) and also global warming gases and has therefore prohibited their use as refrigerants. These are the gases commonly used for HVAC and in AC units. Many US states have increased the demand for a detailed refrigerant reporting requirement (Stouffer, 1998). Government as consumer- many government buildings, both central and federal government, is installed with air conditioners, refrigerators and other heating and cooling systems that use the refrigeration technology. Also government hospitals and other governmental organizations are installed with refrigeration systems. This is evident that the government is a major consumer of the refrigeration technology. Is refrigeration an example of deterministic technology or socially constructed technology. In my opinion, refrigeration is a socially constructed technology. Refrigeration does not determine the human actions but rather it is the human actions that have shaped refrigeration. The need for fresh products has resulted into the invention of the refrigeration technology. Human beings actions are such that they are very busy either in work places or in school and hence have no time to cook fresh foods every day. This has led to the development of the refrigeration technology. With its development, the human beings are now able to cook more food whenever they are free which they can refrigerate and eat them for a long period of time. Abstract Refrigeration can be said to the process of heat removal from substances. It is done with the aim of lowering the temperature of the substance and maintaining that low temperature. Refrigeration in food is done to reduce the risk of bacteria survival. Bacteria are responsible for most of the illnesses. The technology of refrigeration can be said to have started a long time ago. Its evolution is still continuing as we seek to find the best refrigerant that can be safe to us and to our environment. Refrigeration has been associated with a lot of benefits in our homes and in the society at large. Many homes in the United States are now equipped with a refrigerator. Important words used :refrigerator, fridge, fridgerator, refrigeration, Carl Linde, Carl von Linde, William Cullen, Oliver Evans, Fred Wolf, Linde, William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, James Prescott Joule, Ã invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, CFC, HCFC, ODS,AC, HAVC.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Becoming the Third Dimension Images splatter against the viewer's face like a moth on the windshield when gazing at the pigmented speckles dappled along the textured canvas hanging on the wall in the local gallery. Examining the seemingly incomplete picture before them, the viewer may inquire as to the perception of the painted figure from various angles as opposed to the solitary linear image presented by the artist. Mona Lisa's intriguing smile may birth more questions if the art critic could view it from a profile, or the back of her head, or even from the underside of the canvas as a whole. Although a picture may say a thousand words, a panoramic view of the same subject would utter a hundred thousand more. Realizing the human desire to know and understand what they witness in full, artists such as Pablo Picasso began a style known as cubism between 1907 and 1914. Cubism acknowledges the idea that objects (and perhaps ideas?) are three-dimensional and should therefore be expressed as that. The cubist theory drives itself into the minds of artists of numerous mediums including literature. But in bringing a prismatic feel to a two-dimensional topic, the audience is bombarded with more questions than answers given. This reader then is likely to draw a blank at the images forming in his mind as he pieces the angles together. By producing these multiple angles, whether it be in art or literature, the creator fails to emphasize any particular perspective and often leaves one of them open without explanation, that of the reader. Through its development in the literary cubism method, In the Skin of a Lion by Michael Ondaatje defies the reader's initial perception of a single story by trivializing the narrow linear view of the lead character and in turn completing the multidimensional view of the story by invoking the reader's own perspective. In composing this multidimensional story line, Ondaatje eradicates the reader's inclination to base the story off of the linear perspective of one character by delineating the main character's nugatory existence. Obliterating the linear perspective concept, the author allows the cubist conditions of portraying a three-dimensional story contrived from the perspectives of a multitude of characters to unfold. This destruction begins when he states, in reference to Patrick Lewis' homeland, that "He was born into a region which did not appear on a map until 1910, though his family had worked there for twenty years and the land had been homesteaded since 1816" (Ondaatje 10).
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The world today is a smaller place than it has ever been, thanks to the rapid and ongoing development of the global economy; we have become a borderless and cyber-connected community (Hofstede 2001; Kottak 2008; Mead, 2009). This has resulted in greater links and more and more interchanges between different nationalities. The ease at which we can physically communicate and travel has allowed for the free movement of goods and services across borders increasing trade and investment in foreign countries. International commerce, travel, migration and the media are the forces behind globalisation (Kottak, 2008; Craig and Douglas, 2006). Globalisation has a phenomenal effect on the business world; it opens up businesses to potential new markets, allowing them to increase their supply of consumers. Setting the stage for international collaboration (Hofstede, 2003) and while doing so, it is reshaping the global economic outlook (World Investment Report, 2005). In despite of this, Osland (1990) points out, that one of the barriers to international business success Ã¢â¬ËIs the one erected by cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ (p.4). Each civilization breeds its own social-political-economic systems. Essentially, each culture has its own method to conducting business. Such methods are intrinsically cultural bound. In order to understand how the different systems work one must first understand the values that underlie it. Thus, managers, employees, business partners and other corporate stakeholders must recognise that the methods they use, to make their decisions, solve their problems and deals with other people are all done by reflecting on their cultural backgrounds and perspectives (Mead, 2009; Mott, 2004; Hofstede, 2005). As acknowledged above, globalisation leads to problems in cross-cultural communication. We live in a world where a cultural competency is essential for global business profitability. Over the years there have been many studies conducted on culture. In the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s Kroeber and Kluckhohn, where one of the first scholars to provide a theoretical framework for explaining culture as a system of integrated values they wanted to characterize differences between national cultures (Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1963). Since then, many scholars have focused their attention on how national differences affect the decision-making practices of professionals and have produced some tangible guidelines for cross-cultural understanding (Hofstede, 1980; Adler & Graham, 1986; Black &Ã Mendenhall 1989; Trompenaars, 1994; Triandis, 1994; House et al, 2004). One of the first of these studies, and perhaps the one which has had widespread implications in helping scholars and professionals interested in cultures, is HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Dimension model (5-D). Its primary innovation is to class national cultures along a number of dimensions. The underlying thesis in these studies is that there are nationally influenced differences in work placed values (Hofstede, 2001; 2005). This presented scholars with insight into the composition of national culture and according to Hofstede culture-focused research is becoming more prominent, and understanding culture is becoming increasingly vital (Hofstede, 1994). Even though, Hofstede was not the first study on cross-cultural research, his study succeeded in putting cross-cultural research at the forefront of international business research (Hofstede, 2001). It is considered valuable in international business and management and due to the growing interdependence among nations; the need for a better understanding of cultural influence on organisational practices has never been greater (House et al, 2004). A cross-cultural understanding is a prerequisite to an effective entry into an international market (Morder, 1999) as businesses operating in different cultures must maintain a multifaceted approach, developing appropriate skills and compromising the interacting cultures, adjusting their norms, practices and perspectives to work within another cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s border (Morder, 1999; Selmer, 2009). There have been many documented cases of cultural incompetence, (Selmer, 1999; 2000; Hutchings, 2005), outlining how a lack of cultural competence can have devastating effects to the success of business ventures. Thus as we move to a more connected world some might expect a convergence on a cultural level, to match the significant business transactions that globalisation has inspired by the fact that trade, travel and education has helped facilitate the global economy (Scarborough, 1998). Nonetheless, one must concede that there remains a gulf between cultures created by the different nationalities in the world today. The roots of culture are so deep that they have produced highly divergent values systems, (Scarborough, 1998) and without reconciling these differences and working around them then there is no hope of successful business relationships between the ones cultural counterparts (Uniser & Lee, 2005). Through the literature, it is suggested that aÃ comparison be conducted between cultures helping to promote better working relationships (Torres and Jones, 2011; Tsang, 2011) The focus of this paper is the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (PRC), as it is emerging as a particularly dominant player in the global economic market and the process of globalisation brings us in a global community China will play a central role in this. Thus, understanding it is of the greatest importance. Over the last three decades, China has positioned itself in the epicentre of the global market and the world is paying close attention to this new economic giant. (Detert et al, 2000; Scarborough 1998; Dent et al 2000) More references. Before this prosperous period began, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment and economic stability had been predominately controlled by the state. More recently, the country has seen a tremendous surge of economic success due to the relaxing of the state in relation to foreign direct investment (Euromonitor, 2012). Leading to the increase of the number of foreign business people working within China, resulting in an unprecedented growth in Sino-foreign joint ventures and wholly owned foreign firms (Selmer, 1999; Detert et al, 2000). Currently there is an opportunity for growth and prosperity in China, which seems endless and has attracted businesses and professionals to move to China to live and work. The country is now considered the Ã¢â¬Ënew hubÃ¢â¬â¢ in the international migration order (Pieke, 2011, 40). All this force in the Chinese Business environment has engendered much scholarly attention in exploring and understanding how the Chinese operate in a business manner, (Detert et al, 2000). Thus, those involved have become acutely aware of the great divide between the Chinese cultures and other cultures. The differences in the way one thinks, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and how one behaves (Scarborough, 1998). A basic understanding of the core component of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is particularly noteworthy given the magnitude of China as a trading partner to the rest of the world (Pieke, 2010). Until recently, China was viewed as a mysterious nation that was literally impenetrable (Lightfoot & Almeida, 2007), because they draw their culture from a distinctive, indigenous and philosophical cultural heritage, that dates back thousands of years consequently it is unlike any other economic giant in the global market (Rinder and Starbuck, 1997; Selmer, 2009). Thus, they can bewilder other nationalities that encounter them (Chen, 2001) because they do not identify with the Chinese practices and cultural traditions. It hasÃ been suggested that from, a Western perspective, China can be considered Ã¢â¬Ëthe most foreign of foreign placesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Selmer, 2009, 42). Thus, in order to infiltrate this dynamic market, one must learn to accept and adapt to, the distinctive business culture that makes China unique (Bond, 1991). China China is the oldest empire in recorded history; it has a continuous recorded history of about 5000 years (Hofstede, 2005) and it is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s earliest and thus oldest civilisations. It is now one of the fastest growing and vibrant economies in the world, (Wang et al 2008) and the world is now paying close attention to this gigantic influential country. The PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China (PRC) was founded on October 1st 1949. (National Bureau of Statistics, 2012a) Below are some facts about the enormous and enigmatic county. Bibliography Adler, N. J., Campbell, N. & Laurent, A. (1989) Ã¢â¬ËIn search of appropriate methodology: from outside the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China looking inÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of International Business Studies, 20, 61-74 Bohlander, G. W., Snell, S., & Sherman, A. W. (2001), Managing Human Resources. (12th ed.), South West College Publications. Bond, M. H. (1991) Ã¢â¬ËChinese values and health: A cultural level examinationÃ¢â¬â¢, Psychology and Health: An International Journal, 5, 137-152 Bond, M. and Hofstede, G. (1989) Ã¢â¬ËThe cash value of Confucian valuesÃ¢â¬â¢, Human System Management, 8, 195-200. Black, J.S. and Mendenhall, M. (1989), Ã¢â¬ËA practical but theory-based framework for selecting cross-cultural training methodsÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Management, 28(4), 511-39. Bratton, J., Sawschuk, P., Forshaw, C., Callinan, M. & Corbertt, M. (2010) Work and Organisational Behaviour, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Brown, A. (1998) Organisational Culture, 2ed., London: Pitman Publishing. Cardon, W. P. (2009) Ã¢â¬ËA model of face practices in Chinese business culture: Implication for WesternersÃ¢â¬â¢. Thunderbird International Business Review 51, 19-36. Chen, M. J. (2001), Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press China National Tourist Office (2012a) Ã¢â¬ËAbout ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢, [online], available: http://www.cnto.org/aboutchina.asp [accessed 8th August 2012]. China National Tourist Office (2012b) Ã¢â¬ËForeign Arrivals by Purpose: Jan/Dec 2010Ã¢â¬â¢, [online], available: http://www.cnto.org/chinastats_2010ArrivalsB yPurpose.asp [accessed 8th August 2012]. Chinese Culture Connection (1987), Ã¢â¬â¢Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of cultureÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143-64. Child, J. (2009) Ã¢â¬ËChina and International BusinessÃ¢â¬â¢ in Alan, M. 2nd ed., The Oxford Handbook of International Business Oxford
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Marijuana mysteries: 5 things we still donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about cannabis and how it could affect our bodies LetÃ¢â¬â¢s be blunt Ã¢â¬â marijuana is a hot topic in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s political atmosphere. With more and more states legalizing it for medicinal and recreational use, the drug will likely appear on the ballot come November. Yet, despite being historically popular Ã¢â¬â the most widely used recreational drug in the world behind alcohol and tobacco Ã¢â¬â we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about this notorious plant. Marijuana remains a mysterious substance whose effects Ã¢â¬â both risky and beneficial Ã¢â¬â are widely debated. So what do we know about marijuana, and what are we yet to find out? The history of hemp The cannabis plant was used as far back as 12,000 years ago, withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In 1996, California became the first state to legalize marijuana for medicinal use. Now 23 states and the District of Columbia allow cannabis to be sold for medicinal purposes. In 2013, Colorado and Washington became the first states to legalize recreational marijuana, with Alaska, Oregon and the District of Columbia doing the same in 2014. Regulation in these states mandates that a limited amount of marijuana (usually up to an ounce at a time) can be sold to individuals over the age of 21. However, most cannabis products are not tested for potency or toxicology before going on the market. Due to the long history of prohibition, few controlled tests have been conducted on marijuana to determine its purity, safety and efficacy. So if you were to buy an ounce of marijuana at a vendor in Colorado, you may not be able to answer questions like: 1) WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s in this stuff? A bag of marijuana you buy at your local store in Colorado may look perfectly pure, but chances are, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not. Because unregulated cannabis is not scientifically tested before it is sold, the drug could be laced with pesticides, other more dangerous drugs, poisons or allergens. Unregulated, untested substances can cause a host of serious health problems in an individual, ranging from allergic reactions to overdose. 2) Can it hurt me? For years, marijuana legalization